March 11, 2019

Estimates of U.S. unauthorized immigrant population, by metro area, 2016 and 2007

These estimates of unauthorized immigrant populations in 182 metropolitan areas were derived from a sample of census data, so they have a margin of error. The margins of error are included here as a rough guide to the possible range of the estimates. For example, the estimate of 25,000 for Albuquerque could range from 15,000 to 35,000.

Unauthorized immigrants include people who either crossed the border illegally or overstayed their visas. For more, read "20 metro areas are home to six-in-ten unauthorized immigrants in U.S." Additional notes can be found at the bottom of the table.

Unauthorized
immigrant % of ...
Rank of unauthorized
immigrant population
Metro area Estimate, 2016 Margin of error, 2016 Estimate, 2007 2007 to 2016 change Total, 2016 Foreign born, 2016 2016 2007
U.S. total 10,700,000 +/-190,000 12,200,000 -1,550,000 3.3% 24%
Akron, OH <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.5% 12% 159 162
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 5,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 0.7% 8% 145 126
Albuquerque, NM 25,000 +/-10,000 30,000 Not sig. 2.8% 31% 59 54
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA-NJ 15,000 +/-10,000 10,000 Not sig. 1.7% 17% 87 109
Amarillo, TX 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 5.0% 40% 96 106
Anchorage, AK <5,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.3% 4% 172 151
Ann Arbor, MI 5,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 1.6% 12% 144 119
Asheville, NC 10,000 +/-5,000 N/A N/A 2.3% 47% 100 N/A
Athens-Clarke County, GA N/A N/A 5,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 136
Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA* 275,000 +/-20,000 300,000 Not sig. 4.9% 34% 8 9
Atlantic City-Hammonton, NJ 15,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 5.1% 27% 91 97
Augusta-Richmond County, GA-SC 10,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 5,000 2.2% 39% 102 152
Austin-Round Rock, TX 100,000 +/-15,000 110,000 Not sig. 4.7% 32% 19 20
Bakersfield, CA 45,000 +/-10,000 55,000 Not sig. 5.0% 24% 39 35
Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD 65,000 +/-10,000 55,000 Not sig. 2.3% 22% 27 36
Barnstable Town, MA 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 2.2% 28% 147 165
Baton Rouge, LA 15,000 +/-5,000 5,000 5,000 1.6% 42% 92 135
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 3.1% 39% 97 113
Bellingham, WA 5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 3.2% 26% 125 153
Birmingham-Hoover, AL 15,000 +/-5,000 20,000 -5,000 1.2% 34% 90 77
Boise City, ID 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 2.1% 36% 83 102
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH 220,000 +/-20,000 190,000 30,000 4.4% 23% 11 13
Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk, CT 70,000 +/-10,000 60,000 Not sig. 7.1% 31% 26 30
Brownsville-Harlingen, TX 30,000 +/-5,000 35,000 Not sig. 7.2% 30% 49 48
Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, NY <5,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.3% 6% 158 161
Burlington, NC 5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 4.1% 50% 128 121
Cape Coral-Fort Myers, FL 25,000 +/-10,000 40,000 -15,000 3.4% 21% 61 46
Champaign-Urbana, IL <5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 2.2% 17% 154 164
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 5,000 2.0% 42% 82 108
Charlotte-Concord-Gastonia, NC-SC 100,000 +/-10,000 80,000 20,000 3.9% 39% 20 24
Chattanooga, TN-GA 10,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 39% 115 149
Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI* 400,000 +/-30,000 525,000 -140,000 4.1% 23% 7 3
Chico, CA <5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.4% 18% 164 138
Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN 20,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 1.0% 21% 71 76
Cleveland-Elyria, OH 15,000 +/-5,000 20,000 Not sig. 0.6% 11% 95 83
College Station-Bryan, TX 10,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 3.9% 27% 116 134
Colorado Springs, CO 10,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 1.4% 19% 110 93
Columbia, SC 15,000 +/-5,000 N/A N/A 1.6% 32% 93 N/A
Columbus, OH 35,000 +/-10,000 30,000 Not sig. 1.7% 22% 47 59
Corpus Christi, TX 10,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 2.4% 31% 101 127
Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TX* 475,000 +/-25,000 500,000 Not sig. 6.7% 35% 4 5
Daphne-Fairhope-Foley, AL <5,000 +/-2,000 5,000 -5,000 0.5% 25% 173 130
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL N/A N/A 5,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 147
Dayton, OH <5,000 +/-4,000 5,000 Not sig. 0.5% 12% 155 145
Deltona-Daytona Beach-Ormond Beach, FL 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 1.4% 17% 111 99
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO* 130,000 +/-15,000 130,000 Not sig. 4.3% 34% 18 18
Des Moines-West Des Moines, IA 15,000 +/-5,000 N/A N/A 2.1% 27% 86 N/A
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, MI 60,000 +/-15,000 85,000 -25,000 1.4% 13% 32 23
Durham-Chapel Hill, NC N/A N/A 30,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 52
El Centro, CA 10,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 4.7% 15% 117 94
El Paso, TX 55,000 +/-10,000 50,000 Not sig. 6.6% 27% 33 38
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 4.1% 49% 119 104
Eugene, OR 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.4% 23% 148 150
Fayetteville, NC <5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.8% 12% 168 168
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR-MO 25,000 +/-5,000 30,000 Not sig. 5.5% 48% 55 61
Fort Collins, CO <5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.0% 21% 163 139
Fort Wayne, IN 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.4% 21% 150 154
Fresno, CA 50,000 +/-10,000 60,000 Not sig. 4.8% 23% 37 29
Gainesville, FL 5,000 +/-4,000 5,000 Not sig. 2.8% 23% 124 144
Gainesville, GA 25,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 11.6% 65% 65 69
Goldsboro, NC 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 4.9% 59% 133 160
Grand Rapids-Wyoming, MI 15,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 1.7% 22% 80 75
Greeley, CO N/A N/A 15,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 96
Greensboro-High Point, NC 20,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 2.8% 31% 68 64
Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin, SC 15,000 +/-5,000 25,000 -10,000 1.8% 29% 77 66
Hanford-Corcoran, CA 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 6.6% 32% 109 103
Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA 5,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.0% 17% 141 131
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT 25,000 +/-10,000 30,000 Not sig. 1.9% 14% 66 53
Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 2.1% 37% 118 112
Hilton Head Island-Bluffton-Beaufort, SC 10,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 4.0% 48% 120 123
Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TX 500,000 +/-30,000 500,000 Not sig. 7.4% 31% 3 6
Huntsville, AL 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 32% 126 159
Indianapolis-Carmel-Anderson, IN 40,000 +/-10,000 40,000 Not sig. 2.1% 29% 41 47
Jackson, MS <5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 0.8% 34% 151 142
Jacksonville, FL 20,000 +/-10,000 20,000 Not sig. 1.5% 17% 69 86
Kalamazoo-Portage, MI 5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.5% 31% 142 141
Kansas City, MO-KS 50,000 +/-10,000 45,000 Not sig. 2.3% 33% 36 41
Kennewick-Richland, WA N/A N/A 25,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 72
Killeen-Temple, TX N/A N/A 5,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 129
Knoxville, TN 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 5,000 1.5% 37% 88 120
Lafayette, LA 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.1% 36% 140 166
Lafayette-West Lafayette, IN 5,000 +/-3,000 N/A N/A 3.1% 25% 139 N/A
Lake Havasu City-Kingman, AZ <5,000 +/-2,000 5,000 -5,000 1.1% 20% 169 137
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 15,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 2.2% 21% 85 74
Lancaster, PA <5,000 +/-4,000 5,000 Not sig. 0.2% 5% 174 140
Lansing-East Lansing, MI <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.8% 11% 160 156
Laredo, TX 25,000 +/-5,000 20,000 Not sig. 8.9% 30% 62 78
Las Cruces, NM 10,000 +/-5,000 20,000 -10,000 4.8% 26% 107 84
Las Vegas-Henderson-Paradise, NV 180,000 +/-15,000 200,000 -20,000 8.2% 35% 13 12
Lincoln, NE 10,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 2.4% 26% 123 148
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 1.5% 39% 106 101
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CA* 925,000 +/-40,000 1,250,000 -325,000 6.9% 20% 2 2
Louisville/Jefferson County, KY-IN 10,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 0.9% 17% 103 88
Lubbock, TX 5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 5,000 2.0% 31% 136 175
Madera, CA 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 5.6% 25% 114 100
Manchester-Nashua, NH 5,000 +/-4,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 15% 146 133
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 85,000 +/-10,000 70,000 Not sig. 9.8% 36% 23 27
Medford, OR <5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 25% 162 143
Memphis, TN-MS-AR 30,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 2.4% 42% 51 63
Merced, CA 15,000 +/-5,000 20,000 Not sig. 5.2% 19% 89 85
Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FL 425,000 +/-30,000 525,000 -90,000 7.1% 17% 5 4
Midland, TX 5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 4.0% 31% 129 157
Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI 30,000 +/-10,000 35,000 Not sig. 1.9% 24% 50 49
Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI 70,000 +/-15,000 70,000 Not sig. 2.0% 19% 25 26
Modesto, CA 25,000 +/-5,000 30,000 Not sig. 4.2% 20% 67 56
Montgomery, AL 5,000 +/-2,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.5% 46% 143 167
Myrtle Beach-Conway-North Myrtle Beach, SC-NC 10,000 +/-5,000 N/A N/A 2.4% 42% 105 N/A
Napa, CA 5,000 +/-3,000 15,000 -10,000 4.5% 20% 131 91
Naples-Immokalee-Marco Island, FL 30,000 +/-5,000 45,000 -15,000 7.6% 27% 54 44
Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro-Franklin, TN 60,000 +/-10,000 55,000 Not sig. 2.9% 38% 30 33
New Haven-Milford, CT 25,000 +/-10,000 30,000 Not sig. 3.1% 22% 57 60
New Orleans-Metairie, LA 35,000 +/-5,000 35,000 Not sig. 2.8% 36% 45 51
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA* 1,100,000 +/-50,000 1,450,000 -375,000 5.3% 18% 1 1
North Port-Sarasota-Bradenton, FL 25,000 +/-5,000 30,000 Not sig. 3.2% 25% 60 58
Norwich-New London, CT <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 18% 156 158
Ocala, FL 5,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.7% 21% 138 163
Odessa, TX <5,000 +/-3,000 5,000 Not sig. 2.5% 19% 157 146
Ogden-Clearfield, UT 10,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 2.1% 37% 98 98
Oklahoma City, OK 35,000 +/-10,000 45,000 Not sig. 2.5% 35% 43 43
Olympia-Tumwater, WA <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.7% 10% 171 170
Omaha-Council Bluffs, NE-IA 30,000 +/-5,000 20,000 10,000 3.1% 41% 48 79
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, FL 90,000 +/-20,000 130,000 -40,000 3.7% 20% 21 19
Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA 60,000 +/-10,000 60,000 Not sig. 6.7% 28% 31 31
Palm Bay-Melbourne-Titusville, FL 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 1.5% 16% 113 110
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, FL <5,000 +/-3,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.7% 14% 161 174
Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD 160,000 +/-20,000 140,000 Not sig. 2.6% 22% 15 16
Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZ* 210,000 +/-20,000 400,000 -180,000 4.5% 30% 12 7
Pittsburgh, PA 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 0.7% 17% 78 107
Port St. Lucie, FL 10,000 +/-5,000 30,000 -20,000 2.2% 15% 108 62
Portland-South Portland, ME <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.5% 9% 170 169
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, OR-WA 75,000 +/-10,000 95,000 -20,000 3.0% 23% 24 22
Prescott, AZ <5,000 +/-4,000 10,000 -5,000 1.4% 25% 167 114
Providence-Warwick, RI-MA 45,000 +/-10,000 45,000 Not sig. 2.6% 19% 40 42
Provo-Orem, UT 20,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 3.2% 42% 76 90
Raleigh, NC 55,000 +/-10,000 55,000 Not sig. 4.0% 33% 34 34
Reading, PA 5,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 22% 130 125
Reno, NV 25,000 +/-5,000 30,000 -5,000 5.1% 34% 64 55
Richmond, VA 25,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 1.9% 26% 63 73
Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA 230,000 +/-20,000 300,000 -70,000 5.1% 24% 10 10
Rochester, NY 5,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 0.6% 8% 132 132
Rockford, IL 5,000 +/-3,000 10,000 Not sig. 1.8% 22% 137 105
Sacramento--Roseville--Arden-Arcade, CA 60,000 +/-15,000 75,000 Not sig. 2.6% 14% 29 25
Salinas, CA 45,000 +/-10,000 55,000 Not sig. 9.4% 31% 38 37
Salisbury, MD-DE 15,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 3.2% 46% 94 111
Salt Lake City, UT 50,000 +/-10,000 60,000 Not sig. 4.1% 35% 35 32
San Antonio-New Braunfels, TX 85,000 +/-15,000 70,000 Not sig. 3.6% 29% 22 28
San Diego-Carlsbad, CA 160,000 +/-20,000 180,000 Not sig. 4.9% 20% 14 14
San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA 240,000 +/-20,000 250,000 Not sig. 5.1% 16% 9 11
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA 140,000 +/-15,000 150,000 Not sig. 7.4% 18% 16 15
San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles-Arroyo Grande, CA 5,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 2.3% 21% 127 118
Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA 10,000 +/-5,000 20,000 -5,000 4.4% 26% 99 82
Santa Fe, NM 5,000 +/-3,000 15,000 -10,000 3.6% 38% 149 89
Santa Maria-Santa Barbara, CA 40,000 +/-5,000 25,000 15,000 8.8% 36% 42 67
Santa Rosa, CA 30,000 +/-5,000 35,000 Not sig. 5.8% 31% 52 50
Scranton-Wilkes-Barre-Hazleton, PA 10,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 29% 122 155
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, WA 140,000 +/-20,000 140,000 Not sig. 3.6% 20% 17 17
Spartanburg, SC <5,000 +/-2,000 5,000 Not sig. 1.6% 30% 152 121
Spokane-Spokane Valley, WA 5,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 1.0% 18% 135 172
Springfield, MA <5,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 0.8% 11% 153 128
St. Louis, MO-IL 25,000 +/-10,000 25,000 Not sig. 0.9% 18% 58 65
Stockton-Lodi, CA 35,000 +/-10,000 50,000 -15,000 4.7% 19% 46 39
Syracuse, NY <5,000 +/-5,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.5% 7% 166 173
Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL 65,000 +/-15,000 100,000 -35,000 2.1% 15% 28 21
Toledo, OH <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.5% 14% 165 171
Trenton, NJ 20,000 +/-5,000 30,000 Not sig. 5.4% 24% 74 57
Tucson, AZ 35,000 +/-10,000 50,000 -15,000 3.5% 25% 44 40
Tyler, TX 10,000 +/-5,000 10,000 Not sig. 4.0% 45% 112 115
Urban Honolulu, HI 30,000 +/-10,000 25,000 Not sig. 2.8% 14% 53 71
Utica-Rome, NY <5,000 +/-4,000 <5,000 Not sig. 0.1% 2% 175 176
Vallejo-Fairfield, CA 15,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 3.6% 17% 81 87
Vineland-Bridgeton, NJ N/A N/A 10,000 N/A N/A N/A N/A 116
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC 20,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 1.2% 18% 73 95
Visalia-Porterville, CA 25,000 +/-5,000 45,000 -15,000 5.8% 25% 56 45
Waco, TX 10,000 +/-5,000 5,000 Not sig. 4.4% 47% 104 124
Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV 425,000 +/-25,000 375,000 55,000 6.9% 29% 6 8
Wenatchee, WA 10,000 +/-5,000 N/A N/A 6.8% 44% 121 N/A
Wichita, KS 15,000 +/-5,000 15,000 Not sig. 2.6% 32% 79 92
Winston-Salem, NC 20,000 +/-5,000 25,000 -5,000 3.0% 45% 75 68
Worcester, MA-CT 20,000 +/-10,000 20,000 Not sig. 2.3% 21% 72 81
Yakima, WA 20,000 +/-5,000 25,000 Not sig. 8.5% 43% 70 70
Yuba City, CA 5,000 +/-4,000 10,000 Not sig. 3.6% 20% 134 117
Yuma, AZ 15,000 +/-5,000 20,000 Not sig. 7.4% 28% 84 80

Notes: Metropolitan areas are defined using the 2013 definitions for metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) from the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, as implemented by IPUMS. Areas shown are those estimated to have 20,000 or more total immigrants or 5,000 or more unauthorized immigrants in either 2016 or 2007. Ranks and differences are based on unrounded estimates. See methodology for rounding rules.
Only seven metro areas in 2016 differ significantly from the next smaller area; all are among the top 20 and are marked with "*". “Not sig.” signifies that the 2007 to 2016 difference is not statistically significant at the 90% confidence level. “N/A” signifies that data are not available and the metro area cannot be identified in the IPUMS data for that year.
Not all metro areas can be adequately identified in the IPUMS data. Three of 107 metro areas with total populations exceeding 500,000 in 2016 are not shown in the table because they cannot be identified in the 2007 or 2016 IPUMS data; these are Tulsa, OK (#55), Madison, WI (#86) and Lexington-Fayette, KY (#106). Among the 112 metro areas with populations between 200,000 and 500,000, 19 are not shown in the table.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates based on augmented American Community Surveys, 2016 and 2007 (IPUMS).

Pew Research Center