U.S. unauthorized immigration population estimates

Estimated unauthorized immigrant population, by state, 2014

California has by far the largest number of unauthorized immigrants, about 2.3 million in 2014. About six-in-ten unauthorized immigrants live in the six states with the largest populations of unauthorized immigrants—California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York and Texas. See our report: Overall Number of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrants Holds Steady Since 2009

Note: Population figures are rounded. See methodology for rounding rules.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).

Unauthorized immigrant share of population, by state, 2014

In four states—California, Nevada, Texas and New Jersey—unauthorized immigrants make up more than 5% of the total population. States with the highest shares of unauthorized immigrants are concentrated along the coasts or U.S. border with Mexico. See our report: Overall Number of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrants Holds Steady Since 2009

Note: Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).

Estimated unauthorized immigrants as a share of all immigrants, by state, 2014

About a quarter of all U.S. immigrants (26%) were unauthorized in 2014, but the share varies widely by state. Generally, states with the highest share of unauthorized immigrants among the foreign-born population are in the South and Mountain West. See our report: Overall Number of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrants Holds Steady Since 2009

Note: Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).

Unauthorized immigrants as share of labor force, by state, 2014

Nationally, unauthorized immigrants were 5% of the 2014 civilian labor force, which includes anyone ages 16 and older who is working or looking for work. But the share is higher in some states, especially those with relatively large shares of unauthorized immigrants in the total population. See our report: Size of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrant Workforce Stable After the Great Recession

Note: Based on civilian labor force. Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).

Share of K-12 students with unauthorized immigrant parent(s), by state, 2014

Children of unauthorized immigrants made up 7.3% of U.S. students enrolled in kindergarten through 12th grade in 2014, though the share varies by state. Most (5.9%) are U.S.-born children who are U.S. citizens at birth. The rest (1.3%) are unauthorized immigrants themselves.

Note: Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers. Based on students with at least one unauthorized-immigrant parent.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS)

Mexicans as share of unauthorized immigrants, by state, 2014

Mexico is the country of birth of most unauthorized immigrants in the nation overall and in at least 38 of the 50 states, as well as the District of Columbia. Nationally, the share and number of Mexican-born unauthorized immigrants peaked in 2007 and has declined since then. See our report: Overall Number of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrants Holds Steady Since 2009

Note: Percentages calculated from unrounded numbers.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).

Change in unauthorized immigrant population, by state, 2009 to 2014

Although the unauthorized immigrant population was statistically unchanged at the national level from 2009 to 2014, numbers rose in six states and declined in seven states over that period. See our report: Overall Number of U.S. Unauthorized Immigrants Holds Steady Since 2009

Note: Changes shown are significant based on 90% confidence interval.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2009 and 2014 based on augmented American Community Survey data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS).

State Unauthorized immigrant population, 2014 Unauthorized immigrant share of population, 2014 Unauthorized Share of immigrant population, 2014 Unauthorized immigrant share of labor force, 2014 Share of K-12 students with unauthorized immigrant parent(s), 2014 Share Mexican of unauthorized immigrants, 2014 Change in unauthorized immigrant population, 2009-2014
Total 11,100,000 3.5% 26% 5.0% 7.3% 52% n.s.

Note: All numbers are rounded independently and are not adjusted to sum to the total U.S. figure or other totals. Percents and Change calculated from unrounded numbers. See Methodology for rounding rules. Significant changes are based on 90% confidence interval.
"N.A." – Not available. Base of percent is too small to produce a reliable estimate.
"n.s." – Change is not statistically significant.
Download data on unauthorized immigrants in the U.S., 2014.
Source: Pew Research Center estimates for 2009 and 2014 based on augmented American

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