April 19, 2016

Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States

There were a record 42.2 million immigrants living in the U.S. in 2014, making up 13.2% of the nation’s population. This represents a fourfold increase since 1960, when only 9.7 million immigrants lived in the U.S., accounting for just 5.4% of the total U.S. population. Click on any of the bold headings below in the summary table to see detailed tables for each.

Click here for a PDF of all the tables below and read the accompanying report. Download the Excel workbook.

For a statistical portrait of the Hispanic population in the United States, click here.

 

Characteristics of the U.S. Foreign-born Population: 1960-2014
% of the foreign-born population, unless otherwise noted
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2014
Population/Hispanic Origin/Nativity/Language Use/Race
Population (#) 9,729,147 9,744,833 14,079,460 19,682,004 31,133,481 39,916,875 42,235,749
Born in Mexico 6.0 8.1 15.6 21.7 29.4 29.4 27.7
Citizen N/A 63.7 50.4 40.5 40.3 43.7 47.3
Speaking English at least very well (ages 5 and older) N/A N/A 57.2 53.0 49.0 48.4 50.4
White alone, not Hispanic N/A N/A 49.3 31.2 22.0 18.7 18.1
Age/Gender/Marital Status/Fertility
Median age (in years) 57 50 39 37 37 41 43
Female 51.1 54.1 53.4 51.1 50.2 51.0 51.3
Married (ages 18 and older) 68.4 67.0 64.1 61.9 62.8 60.0 59.7
Women ages 15-44 giving birth in past year N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 8.5 7.5
Educational Attainment and Enrollment
(highest degree completed, ages 25 and older)
High school graduate or less 88.9 82.4 70.1 60.9 57.4 54.2 52.4
Two-year degree/Some college 6.0 8.7 14.1 18.8 18.5 18.8 19.0
Bachelor’s degree or more 5.1 9.0 15.8 20.3 24.1 27.1 28.6
Work/Earnings/Income
(ages 16 and older)
In labor force (among civilian population) 47.5 48.3 55.4 64.2 60.5 67.7 66.3
Median annual personal earnings (in 2014 dollars, among those with earnings) N/A N/A N/A $26,362 $27,494 $26,061 $26,000
Median annual household income (in 2014 dollars) N/A N/A $39,432 $49,209 $53,778 $49,624 $49,071
Poverty
Living in poverty 19.1 14.6 15.2 17.8 17.7 18.7 17.1
Homeownership and Household Characteristics
In family households 88.0 86.5 85.9 87.4 87.9 87.0 86.4
Region and Top Five States of Residence in 2014
West 19.8 24.0 32.4 39.6 37.9 35.4 34.8
California 13.7 18.0 25.4 32.7 28.5 25.4 24.8
South 9.9 14.5 20.6 23.2 27.7 31.9 32.7
Texas 3.2 3.6 6.1 7.7 9.3 10.4 10.6
Florida 2.7 5.5 7.5 8.4 8.6 9.2 9.4
Northeast 47.0 42.1 32.0 26.5 23.2 21.5 21.4
New York 23.5 21.5 17.0 14.4 12.4 10.8 10.6
New Jersey 6.4 6.5 5.4 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.6
Midwest 23.3 19.5 15.0 10.8 11.3 11.1 11.2
Source: Pew Research Center tabulations of 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 2000 censuses and 2010 and 2014 American Community Surveys (IPUMS). Total foreign-born population estimates for 1960-2000 shown here may differ from other reported estimates since they are based on IPUMS data files (1% samples in 1960 and 1970 and 5% samples in 1980, 1990 and 2000), and are not based on U.S. Census Bureau population estimates.

Click on each heading below to expand and see detailed tables.

Population/Hispanic Origin/Nativity/Language Use/Race

Population, by Nativity and Citizenship Status: 1960-2014 Foreign Born, by Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Population, by Nativity, Race and Ethnicity: 1980-2014 Racial Self-Identification, by Nativity: 2000-2014 Racial Self-Identification, by Nativity: 2000-2014 Country of Birth: 1960-2014 Foreign Born, by Region of Birth and Years in the U.S.: 1970-2014 Foreign Born, by Region of Birth and Years in the U.S.: 1970-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability of Children, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability of Children, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability of Adults, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability of Adults, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability Among Foreign-born Children, by Years in the U.S.: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability Among Foreign-born Children, by Years in the U.S.: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability Among Foreign-born Adults, by Years in the U.S.: 1980-2014 Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability Among Foreign-born Adults, by Years in the U.S.: 1980-2014

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Age/Gender/Marital Status/Fertility

Median Age in Years, by Sex, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Foreign-born Population, by Sex and Age: 1960-2014 U.S.-born Population, by Sex and Age: 1960-2014 Age and Gender Distributions for Nativity Groups: 1960-1980 Age and Gender Distributions for Nativity Groups: 1990-2010 Age and Gender Distributions for Nativity Groups: 2014 Marital Status, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Marital Status, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Fertility in the Past Year, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 2010 and 2014 Fertility in the Past Year, by Marital Status, Nativity and Region of Birth: 2010 and 2014

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Educational Attainment and Enrollment

Educational Attainment, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Educational Attainment, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014  School Enrollment, by Nativity: 1980-2014 High School Dropouts, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 College Enrollment, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1970-2014

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Work/Earnings/Income

Employment Status, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Employment Status, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Median Personal Earnings, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1990-2014 Median Personal Earnings for Full-time, Year- round Workers, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1990-2014 Median Household Income, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1980-2014

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Poverty

Poverty, by Age, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Poverty, by Age, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014

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Homeownership and Household Characteristics

Housing Tenure, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Homeownership Among Foreign-born Heads of Households, by Years in the U.S.: 1970-2014 Persons, by Household Type, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Persons, by Household Type, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Households, by Type, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Households, by Type, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Households, by Family Size, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Households, by Family Size, Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Living Arrangements of Children, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014 Living Arrangements of Children, by Nativity and Region of Birth: 1960-2014

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Region and Top Five States of Residence in 2014

Foreign-born Population, by Region: 1960-2014 Foreign-born Population, by State: 1960-2014 Share of Foreign-born Population, by State: 1960-2014

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