The 10 Largest Hispanic Origin Groups: Characteristics, Rankings, Top Counties
VII. Changes in the Characteristics of the Hispanic Population, 2000 to 2010
- The Hispanic population grew by about 15.5 million people from 2000 to 2010—a 44% increase. In 2000, there were 35.2 million Hispanics living in the U.S. Today, there are 50.7 million Hispanics.1
- Since 2000, the foreign-born share of each major Hispanic origin group has declined. Overall, the share of Hispanics that is foreign born decreased from 40% in 2000 to 37% in 2010. The largest decline in the share foreign born—13 percentage points—was among Salvadorans (from 76% to 62%).2
- The median age among Hispanics has risen from 25 in 2000 to 27 in 2010. The median age increased by one year among Mexicans, Salvadorans, Colombians and Peruvians. The other six Hispanic origin groups saw no increase in their median age.
- The educational attainment of Hispanics has improved over the past 10 years. Among all Hispanics ages 25 and older, the share with less than a high school diploma is down 10 percentage points, from 48% in 2000 to 38% in 2010. The share of Dominicans without a high school education dropped the most—from 49% in 2000 to 34% in 2010.
- Additionally, both the shares of Hispanics with a high school diploma only and Hispanics with a college degree have risen over the past decade. Between 2000 and 2010, the share with only a high school diploma increased four percentage points—from 22% to 26%. Similarly, the share with at least a bachelor’s degree increased three percentage points during the same period—from 10% to 13%.
- English proficiency has improved across the board over the past decade. The largest growth in proficiency has been among Colombians (10 percentage points). The smallest increase has been among Hondurans (three percentage points).
- A greater share of each of the 10 Hispanic origin groups held U.S. citizenship in 2010 compared with 2000. The greatest change was among Dominicans (13 percentage points).
- The median household income of Hispanics overall dropped by more than $3,000 between 2000 to 2010 (in 2010 dollars). The largest decrease in income was among Peruvians ($7,723), who had the highest household income among the 10 groups in 2000 (they now rank third). Other groups experiencing large drops in household incomes from 2000 to 2010 are Cubans ($6,651) and Guatemalans ($5,578). Only one group—Colombians—experienced a net gain in its income over the decade (up about $200).
- As household incomes declined, the share of Hispanics below the poverty line increased by two percentage points overall from 2000 to 2010. The greatest rise was among Guatemalans, for whom the share in poverty increased four percentage points. Colombians saw the largest decrease in poverty, with a drop of four percentage points.
- Over the course of the decade, the Hispanic homeownership rate was unchanged. Only Cubans saw their homeownership rate decline—by less than one percentage point. Every other Hispanic origin subgroup saw an increase. The largest increase was among Salvadorans, with an increase of 10 percentage points.
See Appendix figure A.2 for 2000-2010 details by Hispanic origin group.
About the American Community Survey Data
The statistical profiles of U.S. Hispanics in this report and the accompanying statistical profiles are based on the Census Bureau’s 2010 American Community Survey (ACS). The ACS is the largest household survey in the United States, with a sample of about 3 million addresses. The data used come from 2010 ACS Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS), representing a 1% sample of the U.S. population.
Like any survey, estimates from the ACS are subject to sampling error and (potentially) measurement error. Information on the ACS sampling strategy and associated error is available at http://www.census.gov/acs/www/methodology/methodology_main/. An example of measurement error is that citizenship rates for the foreign born are estimated to be overstated in the Decennial Census and other official surveys, such as the ACS (see Jeffrey Passel. “Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization,” Pew Hispanic Center, Washington, D.C. (March 28, 2007)).
Finally, estimates from the ACS may differ from the Decennial Census or other Census Bureau surveys due to differences in methodology and data collection procedures (see, for example, http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Downloads/methodology/ASA_nelson.pdf, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/laborfor/laborfactsheet092209.html and http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/datasources/factsheet.html).
- numoffset=”9″ Based on Pew Hispanic Center tabulations of the 2000 Census (5% IPUMS) and the 2010 American Community Survey (1% IPUMPS). For additional population changes 2000-2010, see Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2010. ↩
- For 10-year changes, the differences were computed before rounding and may be slightly different than the rounded differences. ↩